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Full text of "Community Group Resource Kit"

The Community 
Resource Kit 



Guidance for people setting up and 
running community organisations 





www.dia.govt.nz 



Te Tari Taiwhenua 



Section 2 



Planning 



THE COMMUNITY RESOURCE KIT 



Section 1 


Getting started 


Section 2 


Planning 


Section 3 


Organisational structures 


Section 4 


Governance 


Section 5 


Policies 


Section 6 


Meetings 


Section 7 


Financial management 


Section 8 


Record-keeping 


Section 9 


Raising funds 


Section 10: Employment 


Section 1 1 : Communications 


Section 12: Information technology 



CONTENTS (SECTION 2) 



1 Introduction 

Why plan? 

What's in this section? 

Types of plans 

3 Strategic planning 

The process 

New groups 
Established groups 
Mission vs vision 

Strategic planning tools 

Situational analysis 
Public information 
Informal information 
PEST analysis 
SWOT analysis 
Stakeholder analysis 
Force field analysis 
Drawing up your strategy 

8 Operational planning 

How to develop an operational plan 

9 Project management/planning 

1 . Project initiation (or start-up) 

2. Project planning 

3. Implementation phase 

4. Project closure 



12 



Marketing plan 



13 



Feasibility studies 



13 



Risk management 

Identifying risks 

Rate the risks 

Risk management planning 



15 



Monitoring and evaluation 

Monitoring 

Operational plan monitoring 
Monitoring services 
Evaluation 

Starting point for an evaluation 

Evaluation checklist 

Ensuring the evaluation is effective 

Reporting 



17 



Where to go for more information 

Online resources 
Other resources 



Introduction 

Why plan? 

A plan is like a recipe - it gives you the ingredients and their quantities, how to put it all 
together and in what order so that you get what you envisioned. Planning can be simple or 
detailed, depending on the size and purpose of your group. Good planning enables you to 
clearly describe to people outside the group your intentions, goals and progress. 

A plan enables your group to: 

go forward as a cohesive organisation with one vision 
be clear about whether you are achieving your goals or not 
be credible to others outside the organisation 
identify difficulties that can then be avoided. 

What's in this section? 

The planning and evaluation processes are basically the same regardless of the type of plan 
you're developing (see Figure 1). 

This section links to Section 1 - Getting Started, Section 3 - Organisational Structures, 
Section 7 - Financial Management and Section 11 - Communications. 

Figure 1: Planning/Evaluation Cycle 




Community Resource Kit Section 2: Planning 1 



Types of plans 

There are different types of plans and each is dealt with below or elsewhere in this 
information. It depends on the size of your group or project whether you do them all or just 
some of them. 



Table 1 : Types of Plans 



Type of plan 



Strategic plan 



Description 



looks at the kaupapa (principles 
or philosophies) and long-term 
outcomes of the group 
sets the overall vision/mission and broad 
strategic direction of the group 

sets out how to achieve these 
outcomes. 



Timeframe Responsibility 



3-10 years Governing 

• performance body (the 

measured committee/ 

annually board) 



Operational 
plan/business 
plan (also called 
annual plan) 



Project plan (or 
action plan) 



more detailed plan - the steps to Annual 

make the strategic plan happen 
includes SMART objectives 
monitored at regular (monthly/ 
quarterly) meetings 
• may include sub-plans e.g. 
-financial plan, budget, funding 
calendar, etc. 

- marketing plan 

- communications plan. 

A detailed plan — event management One-off, as 
or project management. required 



Management 
(with people 
nominated for 
each of the 
action steps) 



Management 
(usually with 
a project 
manager) 



Financial plan 



Includes a budget and forecast (see 
Section 7 - Financial Management). 



Communications For the communication activity of 
P' an the group, or for a specific project 

or programme (see Section 11 - 

Communications). 



Usually annual 



For the group 
as a whole and 
for specific 
projects 



Treasurer 
(with other 
people in the 
organisation) 
Management 



Marketing plan 



Linked to the operational plan — 
focus on how your group reaches 
its market(s), including current and 
potential members as well as the 
wider community/clients. 



Annual - links 
to operational 
plan and 
communication 
plan 



Management 



Any plan is a living document that is developed and regularly reviewed and modified. As 
your organisation changes and grows, your group must meet the changing needs of your 
community. 

SMART = Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and with a Timeframe 



Community Resource Kit 



Section 2: Planning 2 



Strategic planning 

The process 
New groups 

Strategic planning involves defining what you want your group to achieve and making 
decisions on the best way to get it done. Your strategic plan should answer at least one of 
three questions: 

1 . What do we do? 

2. Who do we do it for? 

3. How do we excel? 

Once you decide to set up a new group, get together to write your strategic plan. Do 
it in two or three brainstorming sessions so you have time to pause and reflect on your 
progress. Your strategic planning process should cover the following: 

• Define your vision, purpose or mission, and values/principles (your kaupapa and tikanga). 
A plan of how to get there - set the more specific goals (or outcomes) and strategies, 
keeping the list to a maximum of three goals or intermediate outcomes. This will lead into 
the operational plan, which can be done at the same time. 

• An environmental scan (see below) - look at what's currently going on in the wider 
community and any future plans that may affect your work. 

PEST/SWOT and stakeholder analyses (see below) - what might help or hinder achieving 
your mission. 



Tip: If possible, get an experienced, impartial chairperson to facilitate the planning 
sessions. This will help identify issues people within the group might miss. Also make 
sure you record the sessions on paper, a whiteboard or computer for future reference. 



Established groups 

An established group should review plans on a regular basis. Start with your group's 
mission statement and objectives. These should be set out in your constitution and possibly 
in previous strategic plans. If your mission statement and objectives haven't changed since 
you wrote them, there is a formal process for updating your constitution (see Section 3 - 
Organisational Structures). 

Mission vs vision 

A mission statement answers the question: 'Why do we exist?' 

Your group's vision focuses on the long-term goal and a vision statement answers the 
question: 'What do we want to achieve?' 

For example, the mission of Volunteering New Zealand is: 'To create an environment 
which supports, promotes, values and encourages effective volunteering by the people of 
Aotearoa New Zealand.' 

The vision of Volunteering New Zealand is 'communities where volunteering is recognised 
and respected and advances the common good'. 



http://www.volunteeringnz.org.nz/ 



Community Resource Kit 



Section 2: Planning 3 



Strategic planning tools 
Situational analysis 

A situational analysis identifies what's happening in the wider community, and what trends 
or developments might influence the direction and goals of your organisation. 

Look at a wide range of issues, such as transport and housing developments, population 
trends (migration, ethnicity changes, changing demographics, etc.) and employment trends 
(both local and national). 

Some sources of information for carrying out your environmental scan are: 

Public information 

- Local authorities are required to develop Long-Term Council Community Plans (LTCCPs) 
(for Auckland Council a Long-Term Plan) and to facilitate Community Outcome 
Processes (COPs), where communities identify the social, economic, environmental and 
cultural outcomes they want for their own well-being. Long-Term Plans include regional 
profiles, which will have information about your community. Much of this information can 
be found at Community Outcomes: http://www.communityoutcomes.govt.nz/ . 

- Local authorities have a range of other relevant information regarding future 
developments, trends, etc. Much of this can be obtained from their individual websites. 
Visit Local Government Online: http://www.localgovt.co.nz/ . 

- Family and Community Services within the Ministry of Social Development (MSD), has 
developed Local Services Mapping (LSM) material that helps communities identify and 
address their social services needs - http://www.familyservices.govt.nz/ . 

- A wide range of statistical information about people and communities, population, work 
and income is available from Statistics New Zealand: http: //search. stats. govt. nz/nav/O . 

Informal information 

- Brainstorm as a group; you will have a lot of local knowledge. 

Your situational analysis will reveal lots of information, so analyse it as it you go. Try to filter 
out the information that isn't relevant to your group's goals and keep what is relevant. That 

will help you develop strategies that fit your community. 

PEST analysis 

A PEST analysis is a specific example of a situational analysis in which you consider the: 

political 
economic 
social and 
technological 
factors that might affect your organisation, but which are outside your control. 



Community Resource Kit Section 2: Planning 4 



To do a PEST analysis: 

1 . Under each of the PEST headings, make a list of what factors could affect your 
community group. 

2. Consider how these factors might affect your group. 
This information will then feed into the SWOT analysis (below). 



SWOT analysis 

A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool for 
identifying the factors that will affect your organisation, both internal (which you can 
influence) and external (which you can't). 

To do a SWOT analysis: 

1 . Start by specifying your group's or project's objective. 

2. Draw up a SWOT analysis template (see Figure 1) on a large sheet of paper or 
whiteboard. 

3. Complete the template by writing down the internal and external factors that will have an 
impact on achieving your objective. 

- The PEST analysis will provide you with information about the external factors — the 
'Opportunities' and 'Threats'. 

- The 'Strengths' will be the skills, attributes or resources of your group that will help 
you attain your goal, and the 'Weaknesses' are the factors that might hinder you 
(these are things you can work to improve). 

Figure 1 : SWOT analysis template 



Internal factors 

(things about your group) 


Strengths 


Weaknesses 


External factors 

(things outside of your 
group) 


Opportunities 


Threats 



Stakeholder analysis 

A stakeholder is someone who has a direct interest in the services your organisation 
provides. A stakeholder can be a client, a volunteer in your organisation, or another 
organisation that uses your services. 

A stakeholder analysis lists the people or organisations that could have an effect on your 
group and identifies the nature of their impact (see Figure 2). You can use this information 
when developing your strategic plan, because it allows you to determine the different needs 
and expectations of your stakeholders. It's also vital to your communications plan (see 
Section 11 - Communications). 



Community Resource Kit 



Section 2: Planning 5 



To do a stakeholder analysis: 

1 . Draw up a stakeholder analysis map on large sheet of paper or whiteboard 

Figure 2: stakeholder analysis map 



Stakeholders Role/ Influences Inter- Strategies/ 
relationship relationships management 


Community 

Groups: 

1. 

2. 

etc. 










'Clients' / 
community 










Funders 










Neighbours 










etc. 











2. In the first column, 'Stakeholders', list all the people and organisations that have an 
interest in what you're doing. Include: 

the people you are working with, and providing services to 

other community groups in the area - whether you work together, and/or refer 

people to more appropriate services 

the people in your organisation - staff, volunteers, committee/board members 

funders (actual and potential). 

3. In the second column, 'Role/relationship', write down what each stakeholder's 
particular role or relationship is with you. 

4. In the third column, 'Influences', write down what is the influence of each 
stakeholder (see also the 'force field analysis' below). 

5. In the fourth column, 'Inter-relationships', write down any inter-relationships 
that may be useful, such as with people involved in different groups, or personal 
relationships with stakeholders 

6. In the last column, 'Strategies/management', write down the implications of this 
stakeholder relationship for your group and what you will need to do to make the 
relationship work (if possible). Doing a force field analysis will help you complete this 
last column. 

(Adapted from Toolkit for Managers, Public Health Networking Project). 



Community Resource Kit 



Section 2: Planning 6 



Force field analysis 

In a force field analysis you put your key stakeholders on the 'force field' according to 
whether they support, oppose or are neutral about what you're doing (see Figure 3). 

Figure 3: Force field analysis template 




Opposite Neutral Support 

Develop strategies to build your support and manage your opposition by: 

getting your supporters more actively involved in helping you 
bringing the neutral groups or people on board e.g. by talking to them directly 
targeting your opponents such as by building positive relationships or strategically opposing 
them. 
Record these strategies in the last column of the stakeholder analysis map (see Figure 2). 

Drawing up your strategy 

When you have completed your strategic planning, you should be able to draw up a final 
strategic plan for your group. It should consist of goals and a roadmap for achieving those 
goals. Try to keep it short by choosing 3-5 key priority areas that you will follow up with 
realistic actions. When you have finished, give everyone in your group a copy or put it up 
somewhere where everyone can see it. You've a much better chance of reaching your goals 
if all the members of your group are clear about what the goals are and what you need to 
do to achieve them. 

To see some examples of community organisations' strategic plans, visit: 

Volunteering NZ- http://www.volunteeringnz.org.nz 
Maori Community Health Worker Network - http://mchw.net/21 .html 
ASB Community Trust - http://www.asbcommunitytrust.org.nz/ 
Volunteering Auckland - http://www.volunteeringauckland.org.nz/ 



Community Resource Kit Section 2: Planning 7 



Operational planning 



An operational plan is the yearly business plan for the group. It has a more immediate focus 
than the long-term outlook of the strategic plan and is more specific about: 

• the actions your group will take towards your goals for the year 
who is responsible 

how long it will take to achieve your goals or finish your project 

• what resources you need 
the progress you are making. 

An operational plan also makes it easier to draw up regular progress reports for your 
management committee or board. 

How to develop an operational plan 



To develop an operational plan: 

1 . On some sheets of paper or whiteboard, draw up various templates as follows: 

Figure 1 : Operational Plan Template 

Operational Plan for 

Figure 2: Stakeholder Analysis Map 



Mission Statement: 


Goal/(lntermediate Outcome) 






Actions/ Activities 


Responsibility 
(who?) 


Completion 
date (when?) 


Resource 
requirements 


Monitoring/ 
Update 


1 










2 










etc 











2. Record your 'Mission Statement' in the top box. 

3. Record your 'Goals' in the second box. Use a separate sheet for each goal. 

4. List the main activities and action steps in the first column. 

5. State who is responsible in the second column. 

6. State when this task should be completed in the third column. 

7. List what resources are required in the fourth column. 

8. Use the last column to keep track of the progress you are making. 



Community Resource Kit 



Section 2: Planning 8 



Project management/planning 

Project management/planning refers to separate, distinct projects, events or programmes. 
These will link to the actions or activities in your operational plan for the whole organisation. 

Project management applies to managing smaller, community-based projects as well as 
major projects. Any project can be divided up into four distinct phases: 

1 . Project initiation (or start-up) 

This is where you work out what you aim to achieve, the resources you'll need to do it and 
how you'll know you've been successful. The project's terms of reference set out the overall 
reasons for, and scope of the project. 

The terms of reference document includes the following: 

• Name of the project 

Project manager - have one person responsible for co-ordinating and managing the project 
to reduce the risk of too many people, each with their own ideas, all trying to influence 
things 

• Project objective - the end goal you hope to achieve and why it is being done 
Project deliverables - the specific things you want to achieve 

• Project scope - what's included and what's not. Be clear about what you want to happen 
and what you'll need to leave out 

Project inter-dependencies/relationships - what other projects will affect, or be affected by, 

this project 

Resource requirements - including time and money 

Overall project schedule and deadlines - when it is to be completed 

Risks - what might threaten the project (see separate section on 'risk management' below). 

2. Project planning 

This is the 'what, where, when, who and how' stage of project management. In this stage 
you work out the detailed tasks to be done and map it out on a project schedule or GANTT 
chart (see Figure 1). www.ganttchart.com 



Community Resource Kit Section 2: Planning 9 



To create a project schedule (or GANTT chart): 

1 . On a whiteboard or large piece of paper, draw up the following template: 

Figure 1 : Project schedule (or GANTT chart) 



Task Responsibility Feb March April May June 
(examples only) 


Develop the project 
plan 














Obtain sponsorship 














Finalise programme 














Print programme 














etc 















2. List the action steps (tasks) down the left-hand side. 

3. Next to each action, write the name of the person responsible. 

4. Mark on the calendar the deadline for each step, and the length of time the step will 
take. Note the inter-relationships between the steps - you may see critical periods 
when a number of things are scheduled to happen at the same time. 

5. Keep track of progress against the plan. 



You can also include the following plans and documents: 

risk register and management plan (see 'risk management' later in this section) 
communications plan (see Section 11 - Communications) 
budget (see Section 7 - Financial management). 

3. Implementation phase 

This is the action stage of the project. How much monitoring you do depends on the scale 
and complexity of your project. As you put your plan into action 

have a system to monitor progress, budget/expenditure and risks 
• have a system to approve changes to the scope of the project 
produce regular (e.g. monthly) reports for your management committee or board including: 

- progress against the project plan, especially noting any delays 

- financial update 

- any communication (correspondence and media queries) about the project 

- any significant risks and how you plan to manage them. 

On larger projects, or in larger organisations, it is common to have a formal change 
management process where changes to a project are introduced and approved. For this 
there are a range of other forms and registers, such as an issues register and project 
change request forms that need to be signed off to approve changes. 

http://www.change-management-toolbook.com/ 



Community Resource Kit 



Section 2: Planning 10 



Tip: Be prepared to run into some unforeseen issues that might mean the project will take 
longer, cost more and/or not be up to the quality you'd hoped. You may have overlooked 
an important item when you defined the scope, and now need to include it. Don't 
panic - it's often just a case of keeping track of these issues and adjusting your actions 
accordingly. 



4. Project closure 

This is the last stage of the project. In many situations there will be some ongoing work to 
do, such as offering continuing support to your community or maintaining a resource you 
have developed. This stage will quite often merge with your group's regular activities. 

There are four things to do in the project closure stage. 

1 . Evaluate the project, checking: 
whether the project met its objectives 
how well it was run, and 

• what you learned that may help future projects — consider what worked well and any 
difficulties you faced. 

2. Write a closure report to record the project's completion. 

3. Tidy up any loose ends, making note of what needs to be carried over into regular 
business. 

4. Celebrate - take a moment to celebrate the completion of the project. You've earned it! 



Community Resource Kit 



Section 2: Planning 1 1 



Marketing plan 

A marketing plan forms part of the wider operational planning. It identifies how you will find out 
more about your customers' needs, how you will develop services to match their needs, and 
how you will let them know about your services. 

(See also Section 1 1 Communications) 



Essential elements of a marketing plan include: 

1 . Service description - explain exactly what it is you are marketing e.g. is it the 
organisation as a whole or a specific service? 

2. Situational analysis - briefly summarise the current situation saying why your 
community or clients need the service 

3. Service analysis - find out if there are other groups in your community offering the 
same or a similar service. How would your group fit in? Use your local knowledge 
and the Local Services Mapping resources to help you. 

4. Target market(s) - at whom are your programmes directed? Usually this is a client 
group with specific needs. Identify who is mostly likely to be interested in your 
service and what are their demographics — age, gender, ethnicity? 

5. Marketing objectives - specify what you want to achieve by using a marketing plan. 
These objectives should be realistic and measurable (with timeframes and specific 
outcomes and key messages). 

6. Marketing strategies - based on all the information you've gathered, state the main 
strategic approach you'll take to achieve your marketing objectives 

7. Pricing - will you charge for your service? If you do, will it be a flat rate or a sliding 
rate, dependent on income, etc? 

8. Strategic alignments - look at what other organisations you could work with to help 
achieve your objectives 

9. Promotional activities - detail the specific things you will do to implement the plan, 
mindful of your target audience and which media fits that audience. Is this project for 
the group, the greater community or the nation? 

1 0. Budget - give details of the total budget for the plan and how it will be spent 

1 1 . Performance measures - identify how you will measure your objectives and who will 
do the measuring. You may want to measure things such as customer satisfaction 
or service usage using tools such as customer surveys. 

(Adapted from Developing a Marketing Plan, Te Papa National Services). 



Community Resource Kit Section 2: Planning 12 



Feasibility studies 



As stated earlier, many community projects and programmes start with the imagination and 
passion of a person, or group of people, wanting to make a difference in the community. A 
feasibility study is a good reality check, giving you some information about your chances of 
success, and possible pitfalls. 



A feasibility study helps the members of your group identify: 

What programme or project the group wants to accomplish — this is beyond an 

individual's or group's vision and focuses on the wider change you are seeking to make 

in the community. 

Is there a need in the community for your idea, for the project or programme? How 

many people are affected or will benefit? Can you link up with existing groups or 

programmes? What level of community support is there for your idea? 

If there is a need, what will it take to make your idea become a reality? What resources 

will you need and what challenges will you face? 

(Adapted from Starting a New Programme). 

http://www.help4nonprofits.com/NP_START_lsltFeasible_Art.htm 



The focus of a feasibility study is on fact-finding and getting answers to the questions 
above. Ask all the people whose advice might be helpful, whether you know them or not, 
including potential clients, supporters and partners. Getting a wide range of opinions will 
enable you to better decide whether, and how, to proceed with your project. If you decide 
to go ahead, you can use the information you gathered in the feasibility study to help with 
your operational and project plans. 



Tip: In all likelihood you will be biased in favour of your idea, so getting an independent 
person to check or oversee the feasibility study will make it more credible. You will then 
be able to use it when you start raising funds. 



Risk management 



A risk is a future factor or event that could negatively affect the project, service or 
programme you are planning. Risks have two main aspects: 

1 . Probability - the likelihood of a particular risk happening 

2. Impact - the likely consequences of the event if it did happen. 

In all aspects of life there is some risk, so we have to be willing to work with it. The purpose 
of risk management isn't about totally avoiding risk but rather identifying and understanding 
the risks so we can better plan to deal with them. 

http://www.risksociety.org.nz/what_is_risk_management/ 



Community Resource Kit 



Section 2: Planning 13 



Identifying risks 

The best way is to get together as a group and brainstorm the question: 'what could 
possibly go wrong?' Look at all areas of your operation that could be affected, such as your 
objectives, the people inside and outside your group, your financial and other resources, 
your reputation. Write down a list of the potential risks. 

Rate the risks 

Once you have identified the risks, they need to be assessed or measured in terms of the 
chance (likelihood) they will occur and the effect they might have if they occurred. Each risk 
can be rated using a risk scoring matrix (see Figure 1). 

1 . Take each risk and rate it on a scale of 1 -3 of how likely it is (unlikely, possible or 
probable) and the impact if the risk happened (minor, moderate or severe). 

2. Place each risk on the matrix. 
Figure 1 : Risk scoring matrix 



Impact 


severe 


6 


8 


9 




moderate 


3 


5 


7 




minor 


1 


2 


4 






unlikely 


possible 


probable 






Likelihood 







3. The likelihood x the impact = the score. 

4. To manage risks, concentrate on reducing the risks that fall in the 7-9 band, and then 
look at how you can manage or reduce the risks in the middle 4-6 band. Don't waste 
time on the low risks in the 1 -3 band. 

5. From there, you can enter each risk in a risk register (see Figure 2). 

Figure 2: Risk register 



Risk 
no 


Date 
logged 


Risk 
description 


Risk 
score 


Management 
strategy 


Status 

(i.e. open/ 
closed) 


Risk 

management 

update 


detail 





































































































































































Community Resource Kit 



Section 2: Planning 14 



Risk management planning 

Some ways of dealing with the risk are: 

Avoidance: look at ways of arranging things differently to avoid the risk. 

Transfer: can someone else take on the responsibility? (This option is usually quite limited.) 

Mitigation: if you can't avoid the risk, think of ways it could be minimised. For example, if 

the risk relates to staffing, a mitigation strategy might be to make sure there is back-up staff 

available. 

Acceptance: some risks will not go away so you will have to live with them. These are the 

ones to keep a close watch on. You might look at a fall-back plan for these risks. 

Monitoring and evaluation 

A plan is only useful if it works in practice. Monitoring and evaluation will help you assess 
this and give you information to improve the programme or service in the future. 

Monitoring 

Check regularly against your project plans on changes and progress. Monitor regularly the 
services you provide. 

Operational plan monitoring 

Monitoring of your operational plans should be a part of the regular board or management 
committee meeting (generally monthly or quarterly). 

Monitoring services 

To be effective, your services monitoring should be: 

regular 

methodical 

planned 

purposeful and meaningful 

structured into the way the group is managed. 

The type of services monitoring data to collect may include: 

client numbers (by age, gender, ethnicity, income level, referral source, etc.) 

problems/issues being addressed (or not addressed) 

results of interventions 

level of need (e.g. waiting lists). 

It is also useful to monitor trends in relation to overall service demand or provision, for 
example: 

changing consumer/client group 
changes in the wider community 
changes in inter-agency working 
impact of any particular local events on the services. 

Regular, systematic monitoring provides information that can inform planning and provide a 
reliable basis for the evaluation of your project or service. 



Community Resource Kit Section 2: Planning 15 



Evaluation 

Evaluation is an essential phase in the planning cycle. It is a more formal process than 
monitoring and will help you find out: 

whether the project or programme is working as planned 
the impact that your group, project or programme is making. 

The basis of evaluation is collecting and analysing data that will provide you with information 
to gauge the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of your services and projects. Evaluations 
will also show you how to improve a programme or service, and allow you to prove to 
others - such as funders or other stakeholders - how well your group is performing. 

It might sound complicated, but you don't have to be a scientist or a mathematician to carry 
out a useful evaluation. Focus on what you want to learn about the service or programme 
you are evaluating, and how you will collect and understand the information you gather. 
Remember, any sort of evaluation will be better than doing none at all. 

Starting point for an evaluation 

Evaluation should be built in to the overall planning for the project or programme. When you 
set the programme outcomes or objectives, ask yourself: 'how will we know whether we are 
meeting these outcomes or objectives?' This is the starting place for evaluation. 



Evaluation checklist 

During an evaluation of a service or programme, ask yourself: 

What did we set out to do? What did we expect as a result? 

What did we do? 

How did we do it? 

What resources did we use? 

• What has happened as a result? What was achieved? 
How did this match what we expected to achieve? 

• What unexpected things happened? 

How successful has the programme/service been? 
What can we learn from what happened? 

• What would we do differently if we were starting again? 
What changes (if any) do we want or need to make, and why? 
How will we do this? 



https://outlook.ccc.govt.nz/publications/EvaluationGuide/ 



Community Resource Kit Section 2: Planning 16 



Ensuring the evaluation is effective 

To be effective, an evaluation must be: 

relevant 

'owned' by the participants (i.e. participants believe it is a useful exercise) 

timely 

manageable in terms of: 

- scale 

- resources (personnel and cost) 

- process/method 

planned and systematic 
include all relevant contributors 
• acted upon. 

Reporting 

How detailed your evaluation report is will depend on for whom it is intended. For example, 
a report for a funder will probably be more formal and in-depth than an internal report 
for the members of your group. A good rule of thumb for any evaluation is that it should 
contain enough information so that someone outside the group can clearly see what you're 
evaluating and how you did it. Recording your evaluations will also help you when it comes 
time to do them again in the future. 

http://managementhelp.org/evaluatn/fnl_eval.htm 



Tip: Too often an evaluation finishes with an evaluation report that is used to impress 
potential funders, clients and other stakeholders. But if you feed the results of the 
evaluation back into the planning cycle, it will help you improve the service. 



Where to go for more information 

Online resources 

1 . Starting a New Programme - Is it Really Feasible and How Will We Fund it and 
Where Do We Go From Here? - http://www.help4nonprofits.com/NP_START_ 
lsltFeasible_Art.htm . 

2. A Strategic Planning Template for Dummies - http://www.woodhillpark.com/ 
categories/Free-Academic-Resources/Community-Resources/ . 

3. Keeping it Legal - E Ai Ki Te Ture - Getting Started - http://keepingitlegal.net.nz/ 
learn-more/getting-started/ . 

4. Charities Commission - Planning - http://www.charities.govt.nz/Settingupacharity/ 
Planning/tabid/179/Default.aspx. See also Planning and evaluation - http://www. 
charities. govt. nz/Strengtheningyourcharity/Planningandevaluation/tabid/263/Default. 
aspx . 

5. Planning, SPARC'S Club Kit http://www.sparc.org.nz/en-nz/communities-and-clubs/ 
Toolkit-for-Clubs/Running-your-Club/Planning/ . Useful information and resources on 
planning for clubs and small groups. 



Community Resource Kit 



Section 2: Planning 17 



6. Our Community (AUS) - Mapping your group's future - http://www.ourcommunity. 
com.au/boards/boards_article.jsp?articleld=1 306 . 

7. Free Management Library (US) - Strategic Planning - http://managementhelp.org/ 
plan_dec/str_plan/str_plan.htm . 

8. KnowHow NonProfit (UK) - Strategy - http://www.knowhownonprofit.org/ 
organisation/strategy . 

9. Nonprofit Good Practice Guide (US) - Organisational Planning and Management - 
http://www.npgoodpractice.org/Topics/nonprofitresources/Default.aspx 

10. Te Papa's He Rauemi Resource Guides - http://tepapa.govt.nz/NationalServices/ 
Resources/ResourceGuides/Pages/overview.aspx#govemance . See the Developing a 
Strategic Plan and Developing a Marketing Plan guides. 

1 1 . Landcare Research's Stakeholder Analysis - http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/ 
research/sustainablesoc/social/stakeholder.asp . 

1 2. GANTT charts - http://www.ganttchart.com . 

13. CommunityNet Aotearoa - Risk Management How-to Guide -http://www. community, 
net.nz/how-toguides/riskmanagement/ . 

14. Australian Government's Risk Management Tools - http://www.austrac.gov.au/risk_ 
management.html . 

15. Christchurch City Council's Evaluation Guide - https://outlook.ccc.govt.nz/ 
publications/EvaluationGuide/ . 

Other publications 

1 . North Shore Community and Social Services' Strategic Planning Resources - 

http://www.nscss.org.nz/publications/resources . Evaluating and Monitoring Projects 
that already exist; A Guide to Developing Management Plans; Marketing and Public 
Relations on a Shoestring. 

2. Strategic Planning for Not-For-Profit Organizations (Haworth Marketing Resources) - 
ISBN-10: 1560249196 

3. Building Social Policy Evaluation Capacity, Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 
Ministry of Social Development: http://www.msd.govt.nz/about-msd-and-our-work/ 
publications-resources/journals-and-magazines/social-policy-joumal/spj19/building- 
social-policy-evaluation-capacityl 9-pages1 79-1 94.html . 

4. NZ Trade and Enterprise Guides to Starting a Business - http://www.nzte.govt.nz/ 
get-ready-to-export/Starting-a-business/Pages/Guides-to-starting-a-business.aspx The 
guides Developing a business plan and Making sure your idea will work have some 
good ideas that will also translate to a community setting. 

5. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), Project 
Management Institute - http://www.pmi.org/Marketplace/Pages/ProductDetail. 
aspx?GMProduct=001 00035801 . 



Community Resource Kit Section 2: Planning 18